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Modelling the effects of solar activity on the ionospheric F2 critical frequency over Wakkanai

Authors:

Muzammil Mushtaq ,

Institute of Space and Planetary Astrophysics, University of Karachi, Pakistan, PK
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Faisal Ahmed Khan Afridi,

PK
About Faisal Ahmed Khan
Institute of Space and Planetary Astrophysics, University of Karachi, Pakistan
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Syed Nazeer Alam,

Pakistan Navy Engineering College, NUST Karachi, Pakistan, PK
About Syed Nazeer
Department of Electronics and Power Engineering
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Hira Fatima

PK
About Hira
Institute of Space and Planetary Astrophysics, University of Karachi, Pakistan
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Abstract

For many decades ionospheric researchers investigated the variations in the ionosphere due to solar activity. The suggested relevant models are based on singlestation data, considering regional and global geographic conditions. The present study investigated the impact of the solar cycles 21st (1976 to 1986) and 23rd (1996 to 2008) on the ionospheric F2 layer’s critical frequency (f0F2) at mid-latitude over the Wakkanai region (45.39º N, 141.68º E), Japan. The statistical analyses showed that monthly median f0F2 has a significant non-linear association with high sunspot numbers (SSN) over Wakkanai, which represents a saturation effect depending on the time of the day in different months and on the magnitude of the solar cycle. Polynomial empirical models of f0F2 based on parameters such as SSN and geomagnetic index Ap were examined. Considering the rate of change in solar activity factor much improved the accuracy of our empirical model and also reduces the hysteresis effect. The most appropriate empirical model for single-station diurnal models of f0F2 was developed using Fourier series. Diurnal models incorporate Japanese standard time, months and sunspot numbers. The computed f0F2 models were compared with the IRI-2012 model’s predicted f0F2 values, which demonstrated the better accuracy of the Fourier model compared to the global IRI model. The models obtained in this study are useful for researchers and organisations working in the field of sunspot performance relating to the dynamics of the ionosphere.

How to Cite: Mushtaq, M., Afridi, F.A.K., Alam, S.N. and Fatima, H., 2018. Modelling the effects of solar activity on the ionospheric F2 critical frequency over Wakkanai. Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka, 46(4), pp.527–538. DOI: http://doi.org/10.4038/jnsfsr.v46i4.8628
Published on 31 Dec 2018.
Peer Reviewed

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